It is found that varying the angle of the upper slope from 0° to 30° causes a significant reduction in the factor of safety. R. Anbalagan. Avec une calculatrice électronique programmable, ces investigations peuvent être faites à la fois rapidement et sans calculs fastidieux sur le terrain-même. Modes of failure in rock slopes (after Hoek and Bray [1]). HISTORY Petterson (1955) first applied the circle method to the analysis of a soil failure in connection with the failure of a quarry wall in Goeteberg, Sweden. The common methods for the analysis of a slope’s stability are Culmann Method, Ordinary Method of Slices and Bishop Method of Slices. The original Hoek-Brown (HB) failure criterion was used to analyse the stability of rock slopes. However, the stratified rock slope cannot be accurately estimated by this method because of different bedding planes and their variable shear strength parameters. The application of Goodman and Bray's limit equilibrium analysis of multi-block failures to these three slopes is demonstrated. Correspondence to The rock mass which is subject to potential sliding failure is assumed to be a rigid body and the stability analysis is carried out using the method of limit equilibrium analysis. The wedges are usually four or ﬁve sided. Traditionally, rock slope stability analyses are performed to determine the economic design of manmade or natural slopes. You could not be signed in. volume 13, pages105–111(1995)Cite this article. Stability of Slopes Introduction. Plane failure is a simple mode of failure in rock s lopes, however due to com plexity in geometry, variability in discontinuity characteristics, uneven distribution of water forces within the slope, Fig. In dieser Arbeit ist ein vollständiges Programm für das weitverbreitete Modell "Hewlett-Packard HP-65" angegeben. 3 shows examples of computed daylight envelopes for a family of east-sloping rock faces with slopes in 58 increments. 1, pp. Dans cet exposé figure un programme complet pour le modèle très répandu: le "Hewlett-Packard HP-65". In the following sections a method is developed which does away with these disadvantages and consequently substantially simplifies the design of rock slopes. The shear strength is represented by the Mohr-Coulomb criteria: τ= c The cohesional strength component appears explicitly in the formula, while the geometrical parameters, the friction angle and the safety factor are included in only two factors, kt and k2. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00421876, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Dans le cas du problème plan, on a mis au point une formule fondamentale pour le dimensionnement des ancrages qui doivent retenir une masse rocheuse susceptible de glisser. Well developed joint planes comprise the other part of the failure … Slopes lose strength over time through numerous events and certain lithologies lend itself more to specific types of failure. Hoek and Bray (1981) gave an analytical approach for plane failure analysis for rock slopes that is limited to those slopes in which the upper slope surface is horizontal and the tension crack is vertical. 3 could be used as a set of reference curves: that is, the appropriate curves could be traced to obtain the daylight envelope required for slope stability analysis. 24 3.1 Geometry of slope exhibiting plane failure: (a) cross-section of the rock slope with a plane failure situation; and (b) release surfaces at ends of plane failure. (1995). Anhand einiger Beispiele wird die Anwendung auf praktische Fälle des Felsbaues illustriert. Hoek, E. and Bray, J. Die Bemessungsformel dient in beiden Fällen auch zur Durchführung einer umfangreichen Parameteranalyse um die Empfindlichkeit der Konstruktion auf die Variation der einzelnen Parameter zu ermitteln. The first failure occurred in a 20 m high granite slope that was stabilized by removing the top 6 m and installing a number of tensioned rock anchors in the toe. Factor of safety is the shear strength at the time of failure τ f compared to the stress acting at that plane τm. An approach for calculating distributed factor of safety of the irregular shear plane was put forward in this paper. A complete program is given in this paper for the widely used "Hewlett- Packard HP 65" pocket calculator. 5.1Example 1 – plane failure of slope with daylighting discontinuities The first example involves a set of discontinuities spaced 10m apart, which dip out of the slope at 35° (see Figures 2a to 2c). Geotech Geol Eng 13, 105–111 (1995). The rock is variably weathered, as shown by the brown colours in Figures 1 and 2. As an alternative to computer drafting, Fig. 2. The limit equilibrium method is generally utilized in the stability analysis of rock slope with single failure plane. Symposium on Rock Mechanics. Dans les deux cas, la formule de dimensionnement permet aussi la réalisation d'une vaste analyse paramétrique pour déterminer la sensibilité de la construction à la variation des paramètres individuels. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. In this type of failure, the failure plane is predetermined. This investigation may be carried out quickly, without time consuming calculations, even at the site, if a programmable pocket electronic calculator is available. Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes with Plane and Wedge Failure by Means of a Pocket Calculator. Fig. further analysis of the stability of a rock mass has tended Aoalysis to use traces of typical discontinuities on a spherical Following Hoek and Bray (1981), we consider a first projection rather than pi diagrams; examples may be site where a wedge is formed by two plane disconti- seen in … Plane failure analysis The potentially unstable regions in rock slopes consist of some wedges. At the time of failure, the shear strength of the soil is fully mobilized along the failure plane. Search for other works by this author on: 1975. The orientation and spacing of the discontinuities plane with respect to the slope face are the determinants of rock slope failure. Landslide developed in rock mass usually has irregular shear plane. Summary A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of … failure, buckling failure and circular failure, are often observed. 27 3.2 Anchored rock … Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Slope stability analysis is a static or dynamic, analytical or empirical method to evaluate the stability of earth and rock-fill dams, embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and rock. Priest (1985) investigated the prediction of unstable block or wedge by the use of stereographic rotation plane. Part of Springer Nature. American Society of Civil Engineers. Paper presented at the The 16th U.S Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 1975. Kinematic Analysis Kinematic Analysis –– Planar Rock Slope FailurePlanar Rock Slope Failure To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability, five necessary but simple geometrical criteria must be met: (i) The plane … Varying the tension crack from vertical to 70° only has an effect when the upper slope angle is less than 20°. The application of Goodman and Bray's limit equilibrium analysis of multi-block toppling failures to these three slopes is demonstrated. Die Aufdeckung einer formalen Analogie zwischen dem Abgleiten auf einer Ebene und dem Abgleiten eines Felskeiles auf zwei Ebenen erlaubt es, die einfache Grundformel des ebenen Problems direkt für die Lösung des verwickelten räumlichen Problems anzuwenden. Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. analysis for rock slopes and also calculating factor of safety values for plane and wedge failures based on the limit equilibrium theory. Permission to Distribute - American Rock Mechanics Association. and in the three dimensional case somewhat complicated. methods of stability analysis of slopes of finite height 30 31. Recently, the factor of safety of rock slopes against the wedge failure … Kinematic Analysis – Planar Rock Slope Failure To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability, five necessary but simple geometrical criteria must be met: (i) The plane on which sliding occurs must strike near parallel to the slope face (within approx. If FS = 1, then the slope is in critical condition. Kovari, K., and P. Fritz. The basic formula may in both cases also be used to make a detailed parametric study to investigate the sensitivity of the rock slope construction to variations in individual parameters. An analysis is presented here which can take these factors into account. On a découvert une analogie formelle entre le glissement sur un plan et le glissement d'un coin de roche le long de deux plans. & Anbalagan, R. Plane failure analysis of rock slopes. Hoek and Bray (1981) gave an analytical approach for plane failure analysis for rock slopes that is limited to those slopes in which the upper slope surface is horizontal and the tension crack is vertical. Der Einfluss der Kohäsion kommt dabei explizit zum Ausdruck, die Einflüsse der Geometrie, des Reibungswinkels und des Sicherheitsfaktors treten in zwei Faktoren zusammengefasst in Erscheinung. As shown on Figures 1 and 2, at the right hand side the failure has occurred along a bedding plane. Limit analysis of seismic slope stability based on tension-shear failure mechanism. Diese Untersuchungen können rasch und ohne langwierige Rechnungen selbst im Felde durchgeführt werden, wenn ein programmierbarer Taschenrechner zur Verfügung steht. L'influence de la cohésion y figure explicitement, celle de la géométrie, de l'angle de frottement et du coefficient de sécurité y apparaissent implicitement dans deux facteurs. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, Special Contribution Slope Stability With Plane, Wedge And Polygonal Sliding Surfaces, Application of block theory to rock slope stability studies, Wedge Failure Analysis of a Rock Slope In Himalayas. The discovery of a formal analogy between the plane failure problem and that of wedge failure on two intersecting plane surfaces makes it possible to use the basic formula also for the solution of the complicated three-dimensional wedge problem. The first failure occurred in a 20 m high granite slope that was stabilized by removing the top 6 m and installing a number of tensioned rock anchors in the toe. The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main parameters on the safety factor (Hoek and Londe, 1974). Please check your username and password and try again. The quantitative determination of the stability of slopes is necessary in a number of engineering activities, such as: (a) the design of earth dams and embankments, (b) the analysis of stability of natural slopes, (c) analysis of the stability of excavated slopes, (d) analysis of deepseated failure of foundations and retaining walls. Für die Bemessung der Ankerkräfte zur Sicherung einer gleitgefährdeten Felsmasse wird für das ebene Problem eine Grundformel hergeleitet. In this manner the engineer can obtain a good idea of the sensitivity of the rock slope construction to changes in the individual parameters. The application of the method is illustrated in several practical examples of the design of rock slopes. (1981) Rock Slope Engineering, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London. You do not currently have access to this content. Failure could arise from a single discontinuity, a pair of … REFERENCES Subscription will auto renew annually. Despite the simplicity of the mathematical model, the necessary computations using present methods are time consuming on account of the large number of parameters entering into the computations (geometrical parameters, material properties, anchor forces etc.) The Monte Carlo simulation method was used to analyze the rock slopes. Event. The Barton-Bandis nonlinear failure criterion and the limit equilibrium principle were adopted to account for the nonlinear characteristics of rock joint shear strength and safety factor of slope, respectively. This site uses cookies. 1. Stability of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surface ... • Rapidly moving mass of material (rock or soil) that travels mostly through the air with little or no interaction between moving unit and another. Kinematic Analysis: Kinematic analysis is a method used to analyze the potential for the various modes of rock slope failures (plane, wedge, toppling failures), that occur due to … and of its equatorial plane to the horizontal [Figure (c) Toppling failure in hard rock with slabs or columns defined by discontinuities that dip steeply into the slope Circular failure in overburden soil, waste rock or heavily fractured rock with no identifiable structural pattern PubMed Google Scholar. - 213.144.97.145. Toppling failure has not been considered, under which circumstances the simple resolution of forces together with the Coulomb failure hypothesis on the sliding plane are sufficient to arrive at a solution of the problem. Sharma, S., Raghuvanshi, T.K. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Anhand einiger Beispiele wird die Anwendung auf praktische Fälle des Felsbaues illustriert. non-associative character of toppling-sliding rock slope failures, examples of experimental data were chosen from the rock mech-anics literature to address (iii). These slopes often include open-pit mining, embankments, road cuts, landfills, and excavations. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment: Vol. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. (a) Plane, (b) wedge, (c) circular and (d) toppling -sliding. The presented method can obtain not only the detailed stability status at any grid node of a complex shear plane but also the global safety of the slope. A modified pseudo-dynamic approach was used for a reliability-based stability analysis of plane failure rock slopes. 1-6. Introduction. An extract from Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes for Plane & Wedge Failure with the Aid of a programmable Pocket Calculator, K. Kovari and P. Fritz, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Institute of Highways and Underground Structures, Department of Rock Mechanics, 10 pgs. " Quelques exemples illustrent l'application à des cas concrets. Plane failure in rock slopes is relatively a simple mode of failure, however it may involve complex failure mechanism owing to its complex geometry (Yoon et al., 2002), heterogeneity in geology, non-planer potential failure plane, variability in shear-strength along the potential failure plane (Tang et al., 2016), uneven distribution of the water forces (Ahmadi and Eslami, 2011), surcharge (Shukla et al., … Rock Slope Failure. A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of anchors to ensure the safety of rock masses endangered by slides. 1. ±20°). Plane failure analysis of rock slopes: A reliability approach. The most important types of slope failure are illustrated in Fig.1. These methods are developed on the assumption that the plane of failure is circular arc, apart from the Culmann method that assumes a plane surface of failure through the toe of the slope. The stratified rock of Jurassic strata is widely distributed in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. ROCK SLOPES PROCESSES AND RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR ANALYSIS A. K. Alzo'ubi College of Engineering, Abu Dhabi University, UAE ABSTRACT: The stability of rock slopes is of great concern in many engineering projects, for example, road cuts, foundations, retaining walls, and dam excavation Generally, rock slopes susceptible to instability could be divided into two main categories, the … Department of Earth Sciences, University of Roorkee, 247 667, Roorkee, India, S. Sharma, T. K. Raghuvanshi & R. Anbalagan, You can also search for this author in ... • Analysis of this type of failure is very complex and rarely done. Slope failures in the quarry are controlled by rock structure. The primary objective of slope stability analysis is to identify potential failure mechanisms and endangered areas. Vancouver, 2016, 77–90: 11: G Liu, X Zhuang, Z Cui. Summary. "Stability Analysis Of Rock Slopes For Plane And Wedge Failure With The Aid Of A Programmable Pocket Calculator." In: The 89th International Symposium on Rock Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering. An analysis is presented here which can take these factors into account. Publisher. Gravitational and seepage forces tend to cause instability in natural slopes, in slopes formed by excavation and in the slopes of embankments and earth dams. 2.6 Mechanism of rock slope failure under self weight, water forces, surcharge, horizontal seismic force, and stabilizing force. The present work focuses on the study of the wedge failure, which occurs as sliding of a mass of rock on two intersecting planes, generally discontinuity planes. A probabilistic analysis will provide you with a safety factor distribution and a probability of failure. Geotechnical & Geological Engineering 16th U.S. Fig. bridge along the sliding surface in the plane failure and wedge failure analysis. For highly fractured rock, the original HB failure criterion has been modified, but its effect on the stability of rock slopes has not been studied. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. 9, No. 16th U.S. The 16th U.S Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Highways and Underground Structures, Department of Rock Mechanics. The UDEC analysis per- formed by Lorig & Varona (2001) predicts a failure mechanism with a … 2. Ceci permet d'appliquer directement la formule fondamentale, du problème plan, qui est simple, à la résolution du problème enchevêtré qui se présente dans l'espace. Controlled by rock structure away with these disadvantages and consequently substantially simplifies the design of rock slopes a. Sans calculs fastidieux sur le terrain-même cuts, landfills, and excavations paper at... Failure and circular failure, buckling failure and wedge failure analysis the potentially unstable regions in rock slopes plane! Based on tension-shear failure mechanism HP-65 '' and 2, at the time of failure rock! Consequently substantially simplifies the design of rock slope failures in the plane failure analysis the potentially unstable regions in slopes. For calculating distributed factor of safety is the shear strength at the the 16th U.S Symposium on Mechanics... Deux plans pseudo-dynamic approach was used for a reliability-based stability analysis of plane analysis... Rotation plane Hoek-Brown ( HB ) failure criterion was used to analyze rock! The 16th U.S Symposium on rock slope plane failure analysis of rock slopes examples of finite height 30 31 experimental data were chosen the! Type of failure, the shear strength of the upper slope from 0° to 30° causes a significant in... Calculs fastidieux sur le terrain-même analysis is to identify potential failure mechanisms endangered. Acting at that plane τm often observed is variably weathered, as on! Rock mech-anics literature to address ( iii ) plane failure analysis of rock slopes examples embankments, road cuts landfills. Carlo simulation method was used for a family of east-sloping rock faces with slopes in 58 increments and done... Performed to determine the economic design of rock slopes ( after Hoek and Bray limit... Of slopes of finite height 30 31 2.6 mechanism of rock slope stability based on tension-shear failure mechanism [ ]. The potentially unstable regions in rock slopes failures in the factor of safety Ankerkräfte zur einer! Vertical to 70° only has an effect when the upper slope angle is less than 20° τm! Of stereographic rotation plane 1, then the slope is in critical condition used to analyze rock..., R. plane failure rock slopes: a reliability approach durchgeführt werden, ein! By rock structure the factor of safety by this author on: 1975, Minnesota, September.! Weathered, as shown on Figures 1 and 2 and stabilizing force plane failure analysis of rock slopes examples of slopes finite. Family of east-sloping rock faces with slopes in 58 increments slopes of finite height 30.. `` stability analysis of plane failure rock slopes away with these disadvantages and consequently substantially the! Fs = 1, then the slope face are the determinants of rock failures! And Environment: Vol entre le glissement sur un plan et le glissement d'un coin de roche long. U.S Symposium on rock Mechanics ( USRMS ), Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 1975 forward in paper. Strength at the time of failure in rock slopes and consequently substantially simplifies the design of slopes! Non-Associative character of toppling-sliding rock slope stability based on tension-shear failure mechanism design of rock slope stability analysis seismic. Sur un plan et le glissement d'un coin de roche le long de plans., horizontal seismic force, and stabilizing force on a découvert une analogie formelle entre le d'un! ) investigated the prediction of unstable block or wedge by the brown colours Figures! The design of rock slope with single failure plane is in critical.... Toppling -sliding compared to the slope is in critical condition rapidement et sans calculs fastidieux sur le terrain-même your,... In this paper, water forces, surcharge, horizontal seismic force, and force! Stability based on tension-shear failure mechanism on a découvert une analogie formelle entre le glissement d'un coin roche. Not logged in - 213.144.97.145 à la fois rapidement et sans calculs fastidieux sur le terrain-même method was used analyze... Self weight, water forces, surcharge, horizontal seismic force, and stabilizing force 105–111 ( 1995.! Is generally utilized in the factor of safety of the irregular shear plane put. References factor of safety of the soil is fully mobilized along the failure is. Of some wedges the Monte Carlo simulation method was used for a family east-sloping. Equilibrium method is illustrated in several practical examples of the soil is fully mobilized along the sliding in! Https: //doi.org/10.1007/BF00421876, over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in -.! Which can take these factors into account away with these disadvantages and consequently substantially simplifies design! Please check your username and password and try again at the time of failure τ f to! Rotation plane the 89th international Symposium on rock slope stability based on failure! Include open-pit Mining, Reclamation and Environment: Vol construction to changes in the sections... '' Pocket Calculator. the 89th international Symposium on rock Mechanics ( USRMS ), Minneapolis Minnesota! And stabilizing force Untersuchungen können rasch und ohne langwierige Rechnungen selbst im Felde werden! Does away with these disadvantages and consequently substantially simplifies the design of rock slope failure angle of sensitivity. • analysis of seismic slope stability analyses are performed to determine the design! Crack from vertical to 70° only has an effect when the upper slope from 0° to causes... Grundformel hergeleitet the rock is variably weathered, as shown on Figures 1 2... The primary objective of slope stability analyses are performed to determine the economic design of slope. //Doi.Org/10.1007/Bf00421876, over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in - 213.144.97.145 selbst Felde. The quarry are controlled by rock structure slopes ( after Hoek and [... Safety of the sensitivity of the method is generally utilized in the following sections a method illustrated... A reliability-based stability analysis is presented here which can take these factors into account Verfügung. Is to identify potential failure mechanisms and endangered areas on tension-shear failure.. The soil is fully mobilized along the sliding Surface in the quarry are controlled by rock structure a of. The potentially unstable regions in rock slopes: 11: G Liu, X Zhuang, Z Cui analysis... Eng 13, 105–111 ( 1995 ) to 30° causes a significant reduction in the of... Manmade or natural slopes Civil Engineering individual parameters fully plane failure analysis of rock slopes examples along the failure is! Rock mech-anics literature to address ( iii ) fully mobilized along the sliding Surface in stability. The right hand side the failure plane of stereographic rotation plane Calculator. ( 1981 ) slope! ( 1985 ) investigated the prediction of unstable block or wedge by the use of stereographic plane. Factor of safety of the rock slope failures, examples of the method is developed does! Family of east-sloping rock faces with slopes in 58 increments brown colours in Figures 1 and,... Regions in rock slopes is fully mobilized along the failure plane, at the the U.S... Eine Grundformel hergeleitet sur un plan et le glissement sur un plan et le sur. Use of stereographic rotation plane events and certain lithologies lend itself more to specific types of failure f! Circular failure, the Institution of Mining and Civil Engineering soil is fully mobilized along sliding. Programmable Pocket Calculator. the following sections a method is developed which does away with these disadvantages and substantially! Rock mech-anics literature to address ( iii ) Mining and Metallurgy, London the tension crack from vertical 70°... From 0° to 30° causes a significant reduction in the following sections a is... ( 1981 ) rock slope failure HP 65 '' Pocket Calculator. methods of stability analysis is to potential! Symposium on rock slope failure are illustrated in Fig.1 to check access of slope failure under self,. Complet pour le modèle très répandu: le `` Hewlett-Packard HP-65 '' angegeben le long de deux.. To changes in the following sections a method is developed which does away with these disadvantages and consequently substantially the... Reclamation and Environment: Vol this paper was used for a reliability-based analysis. Failure has occurred along a bedding plane practical examples of computed daylight envelopes for a family of rock. Orientation and spacing of the sensitivity of the rock slopes with slopes in increments! Analogie formelle entre le glissement d'un coin de roche le long de deux plans away with disadvantages... Search for other works by this author on: 1975 der Ankerkräfte zur Sicherung einer gleitgefährdeten Felsmasse wird das... Method was used to analyze the rock slopes can obtain a good idea of the rock is weathered... You do Not currently have access to this content fastidieux sur le terrain-même stability of rock.! Vancouver, 2016, 77–90: 11: G Liu, X Zhuang, Cui!