Confederate sympathizers there had … The New Mexico Territory, which included the areas which became the modern U.S. states of New Mexico and Arizona as well as the southern part of Nevada, played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. … Known as the Second Battle of Mesilla, the engagement ended with a Union victory though neither side had any casualties. About six miles southeast of Mesilla sat the tiny post of Fort Fillmore. The Confederate general had served with the U.S. army in Taos prior to the outbreak of the Civil War. The Confederate Army of New Mexico from Texas briefly occupied southern New Mexico Territory, arriving in February 1862, and tried to push north to Colorado. New Mexico is part of of the Civil War story, as was Wilmer McClain. In February 1862, Sibley advanced northward from Fort Thorn up the valley of the Rio Grande, toward the territorial capital … Foreseeing the oncoming attack, Lynde destroyed the ammunition and supplies and the fort and retreated northeast towards Fort Stanton, some 150 miles to the northeast. Mangas Coloradas and Cochise led a series of raids on white civilians that left dozens dead and spread fear and terror across the territory. This would allow the South access to the valuable gold fields in Colorado, as well as the shipping opportunities that were available via California. - D2B8Y6 aus der Alamy-Bibliothek mit Millionen von Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in hoher Auflösung herunterladen. Tag: New Mexico Civil War Book Review: Valverde. The New Mexico Campaign was an endeavor by the Confederacy to invade what was then known as New Mexico Territory. Valverde is a novel about the Civil War in New Mexico that begins in Texas. Arizona Civil War New Mexico.png 422 × 359; 24 KB In pursuit on July 27th, the Confederates captured a number of straggling Union troops and soon overtook Lynde’s command, who had been reduced to only about 100 men as they crossed the dry Organ Mountains. [15], In April 1862, a small party of Confederates moving northwest from Tucson met a Union cavalry patrol near Stanwix Station. For all purposes herein specified, and until otherwise decreed or provided, the Territory of Arizona shall comprise all that portion of New Mexico lying south of the thirty-fourth parallel of north latitude. Diese Gegend war von Weißen nur wenig bevölkert und spielte im Krieg nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Die südliche Hälfte schloss sich der Sezession an. During this time, the residents of New Mexico Territory continuously c… However, the territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war. Union service records of soldiers who served in organizations from the Territory of New Mexico. We use cookies. New Mexico war damals noch kein Bundesstaat, sondern lediglich Territorium. ", Exactly fifty years later, on the same date, Arizona was made a state in 1912. Confederate troops withdrew after the Battle of Glorieta Pass, because a detachment of the 1st Colorado Infantry under Major John M. Chivington had burned their supply train. Texas Congressman John Reagan introduced a bill on November 22, 1861 to formally create the Territory of Arizona. He was correct that Sibley was planning a new offensive. SHARE THIS In 1862, hoping to expand westward, the Confederate government and local secessionists sought to enforce their claim to the Confederate Arizona Territory, which included the southern halves of modern-day Arizona and New Mexico and overlapped the Union New Mexico Territory. Principal Commanders: Maj. John C. Chivington and Col. John P. Slough [US]; Maj. Charles L. Pyron and Lt. Col. William R. Scurry [CS] It also stipulated that slavery was to be abolished in the new territory. They dreamed of changing the course of the war and fulfilling their manifest destiny. The skirmish that followed, in which one Union cavalryman was wounded, was the westernmost engagement of the Civil War. The proposal for creation of the territory was controversial in part because of the perception that the New Mexico Territory was under the influence of southern sympathizers who were highly desirous of expanding slavery into the southwest. It was the last engagement between Union and Confederate forces in the Confederate Arizona Territory. The obelisk was known as Soldiers Monument and had been built to honor Civil War-era soldiers. Other Names: La Glorieta Pass. Later a similar proposal was defeated in the Senate. Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (February-March 1862). It opened up an additional theater in the American Civil War. [13], When Federal troops left Arizona early in 1861, the territory was left open to Apache attack. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. Your email address will not be published. Battle of Valverde. In the agony of a nation at war with itself, the Confederate invasion of New Mexico Territory was a minor drama. July 27, 1861. [1], After the expansion of the New Mexico Territory in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase, proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Territory of Arizona in the southern half of the territory were advanced as early as 1856. The first proposal dates from a conference held in Tucson that convened on August 29, 1856. Drawing on many sources the campaign comes alive though solid writing. Originally established to control the local Apache, the post had declined over the years, fallen into serious disrepair and its troops removed. With Union Troops gone from the southern part of New Mexico Territory as well as Texas, the 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles under Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor were sent to occupy the series of forts along the western Texas frontier, as well as advancing into New Mexico to attack the Union forts along the Rio Grande River. Both the Confederates and the Federal government attempted to control the Apaches. After the expansion of the New Mexico Territory in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase, proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Territory of Arizona in the southern half of the territory were advanced as early as 1856. The plan was to gain control of the southwestern part of the continent. However, when the Union found out that the Texans were coming into the territory, they reinforced the fort. New Mexico and the Civil War book. The first capital was at Fort Whipple, followed by Prescott, in the northern Union-controlled area. New Mexico Civil War Service Records of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865. The Battle of Mesilla resulted in a Confederate victory. The southern part of the New Mexico Territory, which was the Gadsen Purchase, sided with the Confederacy, while the northern section was Union.New Mexico supplied 26 Union military units. [2] In April 1860, impatient for Congress to act, a convention of thirty-one delegates met in Tucson and adopted a constitution for a provisional territorial government of the area south of 34 degrees north. Find the perfect new mexico civil war reenactment stock photo. Once again, Granville Oury was re-elected as a congressman to the Confederate States Congress. In the Spring of 1861, Sibley, a Louisianan who had just resigned from the U.S. Army, met with Confederate President Jefferson Davis, outlining a strategy to take over the American West. But that’s exactly what we did. Description. Media in category "People of New Mexico in the American Civil War" The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. In February 1858, the New Mexico territorial legislature adopted a resolution in favor of the creation of the Arizona territory, but with a north-south border along the 109th meridian, with the additional stipulation that all the Indians of New Mexico would be removed to northern Arizona. Sibley then planned on focusing on areas farther west to attack mineral-rich Nevada and California. Campaign: Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (1862) Date(s): March 26-28, 1862. At sunset on July 26th, Baylor ordered his artillery and more cavalry to reinforce him, while the rest of his command moved into position to attack the fort the next day. Even though the column withstood the Apaches and established Fort Bowie to secure the pass, the Californians and the Apache would continue fighting throughout the War and beyond. Die Konföderation nahm sie als Arizona-Territorium mit Mesilla als Hauptstadt auf. When the U.S. claimed the New Mexico Territory, after the Mexican-American War, the U.S. set up a string of forts across the Territory to protect travelers and settlers from Indian raids, and to keep an eye out for other possible uprisings. The Confederate Army of New Mexico … Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America), Provisional Confederate Territory of Arizona, List of New Mexico Territory Civil War units, American Civil War Research Database statistics, Arizona Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans, Sons of Confederate Veterans, Arizona Chapter, National Park Service map of Civil War sites in New Mexico, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/New_Mexico_Territory_in_the_American_Civil_War?oldid=4415501. The plan called for an invasion along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, seizing Colorado Territory, which was in the height of a gold rush, as well as Fort Laramie, Wyoming, which was the most important garrison along the Oregon Trail. In July 1861, a small Confederate force of Texans, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor, captured Mesilla in the eastern part of the territory. Taking the offense, Lynde left a small force behind to guard the fort and marched on Mesilla on July 25th. Media in category "New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War" The following 2 files are in this category, out of 2 total. of names: Battalion, New Mexico Volunteers : 663 names : New Mexico Mounted Infantry : 4 names New Mexico Mounted Volunteers : 4 names: 1st Regiment, New Mexico Cavalry : 3,533 names: 1st Regiment, New Mexico Infantry (Old) 1,280 names: 1st Regiment, New Mexico Infantry (New) 2,058 names: 1st Regiment, New Mexico Militia Infantry (3 … Sherod Hunter at the head of the Confederate Arizona Rangers, occupied southern Arizona during the spring of 1862. [3], However, due to the small number of inhabitants in the proposed territory, the U.S. Congress continued to refuse to recognize any proceedings from any of the conventions being held in this area. This book corrects many misconceptions that may be useful to all interested in the Civil War in New Mexico. Governor Baylor approved the proceedings, and Delegate Granville H. Oury was sent off to Richmond, Virginia on October 1, 1861.[8]. Despite the Union regulars, 1st Colorado Infantry, and New Mexican Volunteers being defeated on the battlefield, they ultimately won the campaign; the battle was later dubbed as the "Gettysburg of the West". The Wikipedia article, New Mexico in the American Civil War, has more … That same night, Baylor’s men managed to capture 85 of the fort’s horses, which formed most of the fort’s transportation. Hunter's frontiersmen spent most of their time expelling Union supporters and skirmishing with Federal troops, so the order was never enforced. As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico remained loyal to the Union. There are a total of (5) Civil War Events by State - New Mexico events in the CivilWarTimeline.net database. Leading some 380 Union troops, he approached the town and demanded Baylor’s surrender. [17] As the war lengthened and Union troops were withdrawn to fight elsewhere, famed explorer and frontiersman Kit Carson helped organize and command the 1st New Mexico Cavalry, a militia unit, to engage in campaigns against the Apache, Navajo, and Comanche in New Mexico and Texas, as well as participating in the earlier Battle of Valverde against the Confederates. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Other leading and trailing events are also included for perspective. The extremely ambitious plan was made more manageable by carrying minimal supplies, instead, capturing supplies at Union forts and depots along the Santa Fe Trail and living off the land. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). The New Mexico Volunteers were unjustly maligned by Edward Canby, the author said, and authors ever since have echoed his sentiments without investigating the facts. He also planned to recruit new soldiers along the way, certain that there was much Confederate sentiment and cooperation in the sparsely defended deserts. Civil War battles in New Mexico. A detachment of Hunter's force traveled along the Overland Mail route and destroyed caches of hay to prevent their use by Union forces; it traveled to within eighty miles of Fort Yuma. Arizona became its own territory in 1863 during the war. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Your email address will not be published. He called on the citizens to abandon their allegiance to the Union and to join the Confederacy, warning that those "who co-operate with the enemy will be treated accordingly, and must be prepared to share their fate." The delegates elected Lewis Owings as provisional governor. [12], At the start of the Civil War, the territorial governor was Abraham Rencher; although a Democrat from North Carolina, he refused to support secession, and called out the territorial militia to counteract the Confederate invasion of July 1861. He bore orders from Governor Baylor to lure the Apaches into Tucson for peace talks and exterminate the adults. A weekend-long gay dance blowout held at a beach resort on the West Coast of Mexico has created enough social-media controversy and in-fighting to be dubbed “gay civil war.” Prior to the Civil War, residents in the southern part of New Mexico Territory had long complained that the territorial government in Santa Fe was too far away to properly address their concerns. The Civil War in New Mexico was fought in the deserts and mountains of the huge territory, which was mostly wilderness, amid the continuing ancient wars against the wild Indian tribes waged by both sides. The remaining Union troops in the New Mexico Territory were concentrated in forts along and near the Rio Grande; the commander of the Union Department of New Mexico, Colonel Edward R. S. Canby, started raising regiments of New Mexico volunteers and militia to replace the regular army units which were ordered east. Thin Air Books, 2017 ISBN: 9781534715974. The proposals arose from concerns about the effectiveness of the territorial government in Santa Fe to administer the newly acquired south… The Civil War in New Mexico. One of the most ambitious Confederate campaigns of the Trans-Mississippi Theater, the rebels hoped to establish control of the American West and to open an additional theater in the war. Their sense of abandonment was further confirmed at the beginning the Civil War, when regular troops were withdrawn from the area. Both Confederate and Union governments claimed jurisdiction and … [14], Capt. After three Union enlisted men died and two officers and four other men were wounded, Lynde ordered a return to the fort. [18], Confederate Arizona Territory, which split off from New Mexico Territory in 1861, was the first U.S. incarnation of Arizona which would come into existence as Arizona Territory in 1863. ", Baylor's subsequent dismantling of the existing Union forts in the territory left the white settlers at the mercy of the Apache, who quickly gained control of the area and forced many of the white settlers to seek refuge in Tucson. His strategy also included taking the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Sonora, and Lower California, either through purchase or by invasion. The Arizona Organic Act passed the Senate in February 1863 without the Tucson-as-capital stipulation, and was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on February 24, the date of the official organization of the U.S. Arizona Territory. It is well written through solid research and supporting maps showing the consequences of the South would of won this little-known campaign for the control of the western United States. Able to repulse the oncoming Union troops, both sides then began skirmishing at long range. It’s a crazy thing to think that 154 years ago today we decided that it was acceptable to kill off a large percentage of our male population between the ages of 18 and 30. Their sense of abandonment was further confirmed at the beginning the Civil War, when regular troops were withdrawn from the area. The proposals arose from concerns about the effectiveness of the territorial government in Santa Fe to administer the newly acquired southern portions of the territory.[2]. Dr. Pittman brings the Civil War in New Mexico to life with this book. On August 1, 1861, Baylor declared the establishment of the Confederate Arizona Territory, installed himself as the new territory’s military governor, made Mesilla the capitol, and declared martial law. Henry Connelly (New Mexico Governor).jpg 361 × 498; 27 KB. The Rebels dreamed of access to the Santa Fe Trail and the gold mines of California and Colorado. On December 20, 1861, General Sibley, in command of the Army of New Mexico, issued a proclamation taking possession of New Mexico in the name of the Confederate States. The records include a jacket-envelope for each soldier, labeled with his name, his rank, and the unit in which he served. During the Civil War, the New Mexico Territory included New Mexico, Arizona, and the southern tip of Nevada. The conference issued a petition to the U.S. Congress, signed by 256 people, requesting organization of the territory and elected Nathan P. Cooke as the territorial delegate to Congress. [6], "The social and political condition of Arizona being little short of general anarchy, and the people being literally destitute of law, order, and protection, the said Territory, from the date hereof, is hereby declared temporarily organized as a military government until such time as Congress may otherwise provide. 70, 226–227; Josephy, p. 85. This location may seem odd to you unless you’re familiar with the relationship of Texas and New Mexico. Subsequently a second convention was held in Tucson on March 28, 1861, chaired by Mark Aldrich, who had been Tucson's first mayor. [11], The following month, in March 1862, the U.S. House of Representatives, now devoid of the southern delegates and controlled by Republicans, passed a bill to create the United States Arizona Territory using the north-south border of the 107th meridian. That month he was replaced by Henry Connelly, a native of New Mexico who would serve as governor for the remainder of the war. Carleton's troops later fought the Battle of Apache Pass after being ambushed by Cochise and Mangas Coloradas. Location: Santa Fe County and San Miguel County. [16], As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico remained loyal to the Union. Battle of Glorieta Pass . The prisoners were paroled and Baylor returned to Fort Fillmore. However, the people of Arizona remained firm in their support of Baylor, and held another convention on August 28, 1861 in Tucson, ratifying Baylor's proclamation. Less than a year later, another battle would be fought near Mesilla on June 1, 1862, between Arizona rebels and the New Mexican Militia. However, the Confederate forces lost precious supplies and several horses, forcing them to retreat. 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